Different aspects of dhyana yoga, the aim of which is to explore the inner world of consciousness and bring it in harmony with the empirical reality, have been described in shlokas from 6.10 to 6.28 of the Bhagavad Gita. Through these shlokas, it has been explained as to how can a contemplative mind, through self-discipline, achieve spiritual growth and also enjoy his mundane existence. This path of self-realisation intends to raise one’s level of consciousness to higher and higher levels until one attains unity with the Supreme.
Techniques for the practice of this yoga have also been elaborated here in these shlokas. It has been instructed that one should set up a firm seat in a clean place, cover it appropriately ; and sit on it comfortably. Holding the body, head and neck straight, erect and steady ; and without looking around, he should fix the gaze at the tip of his nose.
Sitting in correct posture ensures stability of the body. A relaxed and stable body facilitates concentration of the mind.
Keeping his thoughts and senses under control, one should fix the mind on one point ; and thus practice meditation for the purification of his soul. Whatsoever makes the wavering and unsteady mind wander away, he should restrain and bring it back under the control of the self. Withdrawing his attention from all the external objects, he should meditate upon the Supreme Self, holding Him alone as the ultimate goal of his life.
But this yoga is not meant for the men of extreme behaviour. For success on the path of meditation, one should be regulated in eating, sleeping and recreation etc. Sorrows of those who are restrained in their actions are mitigated by the practice of this yoga.
Precautions which must be taken while practising dhyana yoga have also been prescribed here. One should meditate alone and in solitude. One can appreciate the moments of comprehensive calmness only when he is withdrawn from the external distractions. He can hear the voice from within only when he has cut himself off from the noise of the outside world.
Meditation should be practised on regular basis. One cannot go too far by taking to it in fits and starts. This yoga should be pursued with determination and great enthusiasm, without any mental reservation.
For the practice of meditation, one should be self-controlled. Only a pure heart and a disciplined mind can touch the inner layers of one’s being.
To succeed in the practice of meditation, one must free himself from all selfish desires. Constant cravings give rise to anxiety, fear, lust and anger etc. ; and, thus, a disturbed mind. Such a turbulent mind cannot concentrate itself on any thing. To gain the glad freedom of the self, one must overcome the tyranny of ever expanding desires. Only then can he establish himself in dhyana yoga.
Similarly, one must free himself from longing for more and more material possessions. One can move forward on the path of spirituality only when he understands that his real possessions are not the things of the world that perish, but the knowledge of the self which endures.
Only a serene mind can meditate successfully. To obtain such a peaceful and receptive mind, one must be fearless, be free from evil ; and must have proper control over his sex impulses.
In this yoga, perfection is gained gradually, little by little. Therefore, one should move forward with full conviction but by means of patient intelligence. Having so fixed his mind on the self, one should not think of anything else.
When the mind becomes purified and calm by the practice of meditation, the intelligence gets refined. Through such refined intelligence, one realises the self. In such a state of being, he finds that the supreme delight is beyond the perception of the senses. It can be perceived only through the purified intelligence. Having thus established himself in the realm of freedom, he does not depart from the truth and remains content in himself. He then is not shaken by the biggest of miseries.
To make progress on the path of meditation, one need not be dependent upon any external assistance in the form of a ritual or some dogma. Even while working in the world in every possible manner, passionless serenity of one’s mind can remain intact. The stable mind of such a practioner of meditation is compared to a lamp in a windless place which does not flicker.
When perfection is achieved on the path of meditation ; body, mind and the intelligence get purified. The Eternal Light of consciousness shines all around, without any obstruction. The innermost depths of the self are illumined. The embodied soul connects directly with the Supreme. One experiences the Divine within.
Thus, he who establishes his mind, through the practice of meditation, in the self ; he realises his true nature. He becomes one with the infinite Brahman ( the embodiment of Truth, Consciousness and Joy). He can experience easily the supreme happiness and infinite bliss that arises from being in touch with the Eternal.
To conclude, the true happiness is within, which can be gained by discipline of the mind.